Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-21

Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect?


1 Sanitation, Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Biological Science, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication1-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
Beuy Joob
Medical Academic Center, Bangkok
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2276-7096.176048

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  Abstract 

Background: Ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many confi rmed clinical advantages. Ginseng formulation in combination with other chemicals is very interesting. The combination between ginseng and amino acid such as arginine is interesting. There are extremely limited reports on such ginseng-amino acid combination.
Method: The present ontology study is to assess the ginseng-arginine combination.
Results: In this study, a standard ontology study was used for assessing the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine.
Conclusion: Based on this study, there is no new addition effect but some concurrent effects between ginseng and arginine can be identified.

Keywords: Arginine, combination, ginseng, ontology


How to cite this article:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect?. J Med Trop 2016;18:18-21

How to cite this URL:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect?. J Med Trop [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Oct 22];18:18-21. Available from: http://www.jmedtropics.org/text.asp?2016/18/1/18/176048


  Introduction Top


Ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many confirmed clinical advantages. Ginseng formulation in combination with other chemicals is very interesting. In general, the combination might be the combining ginseng with other Chinese herbs, other non-Chinese herbs as well as modern nutraceuticals.[1] There are some available nutraceutical products that pose the combining formulation between ginseng and amino acid, especially for arginine. The combination between ginseng and amino acid such as arginine is interesting. The effect of such combination is still controversial and needs systematic evaluation. To study the effect due to a combination of two or more compositions seem hard in the past. However, due to the advanced bioinformatics techniques in the present day, the process can be simplified.

An important technique to assess the effect due to a combination of compositions is ontology. Briefly, ontology is a systematic study of the biological process and function of any substance.[2],[3],[4],[5] With the use of computational technology and data mining technology, the ontology technique can be useful for categorizing and determining the relating function of any composition, which is primarily assigned as a basic ontology term.[2],[3],[4],[5] Focusing on a basic ontology term, the computational manipulation can be used for searching for its relating biological processes and functions. Moreover, clarification of the situations of combination between two compositions or among many compositions is possible. The previous publications by Ngam et al. are the good examples.[6],[7] Indeed, the gene ontology approach has also been used in many previous referencing papers.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] For example, the similar ontology technique was used for assessment of the interaction between Breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) and human papillomavirus E7.[6] This study on the interaction between BRCA1 and human papillomavirus E7 gives an insight into the pathogenesis of gynecological malignancies.[6] Another study was on using the ontology technique to clarify the outcome from combination between semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme.[7] This work reveals the synergistic effect due to the combination, and this can further explain the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.[7] It can be said that the used ontology can be helpful in clarification and prediction of the biological process which is the outcome from the interaction or combination between two compositions.

Combination between classical Chinese herb and other useful substances can be seen in the present day. Some combinations are proved for usefulness.[6],[7] However, an interesting combination is the combined ginseng and arginine which has never been approved for the advantage. The present ontology study is to specifically assess the ginseng-arginine combination. In this study, a standard ontology study was used for assessing the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. The standard technique of ontology is used in this work, and the gotten result can be the solution to the existing problem on the effect of combination between ginseng and arginine.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this study, standard ontology methods were used for assessment of the combined ginseng and arginine formulation. The technique of ontology is the same as described in the previous reports.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] Briefly, prediction of molecular function and biological process is basically done by standard ontology prediction tool, GoFigure, an automated Gene Ontology annotation tool.[14] The tool is a computational-based tool that uses BLAST technique, an algorithm for comparing primary biological sequence information, and for identification of homology in ontology sequencing in ontology annotated databases.[14] The mentioned ontology annotated databases include several international databases such as SwissProt, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Mouse Genome Informatics, and Wormbase.[14] The technique has been approved for its effectiveness in clarification of biological processes that emerged from the combination between molecules.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13]

Similar studies using the present techniques have been documented [8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] and like this study specifically focuses on the outcome resulting from the combination between ginseng and arginine. The basic ontology terms in this study are “ginseng” and “arginine.” Focusing on the principle of ontology, the basic biological processes specifically posed by ginseng and arginine are determined from gene ontology database then further identification on any biological processes as outcomes of combination is done. Step by step, basic biological processes of each studied composition are identified by ontology searching of the database. Next, the finding of biological processes of combined both composition is identified by the prediction tool GoFigure. The gotten results are sought for (a) any new biological process and (b) any concomitant process. The details and protocols of the methodology can be seen in the referencing publication on gene ontology studies.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13]


  Results Top


According to the study, several biological processes of ginseng and arginine can be seen. However, there is no new additional process as an outcome of a combination of arginine and ginseng [Table 1]. Nevertheless, there are some concomitant processes between ginseng and arginine including (a) nitric oxide releasing and (b) spermatotropic actions.
Table 1: Biological processes of ginseng, arginine, and combined ginseng-arginine from ontology studytable

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  Discussion Top


Ginseng is accepted as a classical beneficial Chinese herb that has been used for thousand years. Many advantages of ginseng have been mentioned in both classical Chinese traditional medicine and modern Western medicine.[1] There are many formulations and regimens containing ginseng available as drug and nutraceuticals in the present day. The combination is very interesting and the approval its clinical usefulness is still necessary.[1] In this short report, the author focused the investigation on the combination between ginseng and arginine. As already mentioned, ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many active ingredients, especially for ginsenoside that can be useful for stimulation of immune system.[15],[16] Focusing on arginine, it is an important amino acid that is required for regulation of the human body.[17] It is accepted as an essential amino acid for human beings. This means that arginine cannot be synthesized by the human body, therefore needed by intake of food.[17] The combination of arginine and ginseng are good for health; hence, it is no doubt that there are several attempts to combine and formulate the combination between the two compositions. The good example is the study by Morgante et al.[18] on preparing arginine and ginseng combination for treatment of male with spermatogenesis problem.

In this work, the author used standard ontology approach for clarifying the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. According to the present assessment, ontology approach can identify now a new additional biological process that is newly generated as a result of combining. However, there are two important common processes that both ginseng and arginine pose. The two processes are on nitric oxide biological reaction and sperm stimulation. This means the combination of ginseng and arginine increased the magnitude of expression of those processes. In fact, some recent reports also show that separate use of ginseng formula and arginine formula can provide good synchronization. Indeed, after passing some formulation process, ginseng can give arginine as an important metabolite;[19] hence, it is no doubt that ginseng and arginine share some common biological processes. This can be observable not only in classical Chinese ginseng but also American ginseng.[20] Rinwa and Kumar reported the observation on “modulation of nitrergic signaling” in ginseng that was accompanied by arginine in the bio-metabolic process.[20]

Focusing on the effect on sperm, it is interesting to note that both ginseng and arginine enhance spermatogenesis based on the present work, the sperm stimulation can be increased as a biological process corresponding to the combination between ginseng and arginine. In fact, there are some reports to support that finding. For example, Morgante et al. found that the use of two separate formula, arginine and ginseng, could solve the problem of asthenospermia.[18] This report can support the present finding that the combination ginseng and arginine increase the magnitude of expression of spermatotropic actions. Cai et al. also reported another similar study on a nutritional supplementation formula that contains both ginseng and arginine.[21] In this work, the therapeutic trial on males with problem of sperm quality due to Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was done and it was found that the patients who got additional nutritional supplementation formula that contained both ginseng and arginine to standard antibiotic therapy presented a significantly improved semen quality compared to those patients who got only standard antibiotic therapy.[21] Of interest, the effect of the combination is specific to male, andrologic beneficial on spermatogenesis. The similar effect is not observed in female or there is no gynecologic beneficial on oogenesis. According to a recent study by Polan et al.,[22] a test on a nutritional supplementation formula that contains both ginseng and arginine showed the null effect on the estrogenic biological process.


  Conclusion Top


In this report, the author used a standard ontology study for assessing the outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. According to this study, there is no new additional effect but some concurrent effects between ginseng and arginine can be identified. This work is from the authors' laboratory in the series of testing combination between ginseng and other molecules. The other works in the series (such as the interaction between ginseng and lingzhi, ginseng and gingko, etc.) will be further published.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Baeg IH, So SH. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea). J Ginseng Res 2013;37:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wiwanitkit V. Fundamentals of gene ontology. In: Chen J, Sidhu AS, editors. Biological Database Modeling. Norwood: Artech House Publishers; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Walls RL, Deck J, Guralnick R, Baskauf S, Beaman R, Blum S, et al. Semantics in support of biodiversity knowledge discovery: An introduction to the biological collections ontology and related ontologies. PLoS One 2014;9:e89606.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Yu AC. Methods in biomedical ontology. J Biomed Inform 2006;39:252-66.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Rubin DL, Shah NH, Noy NF. Biomedical ontologies: A functional perspective. Brief Bioinform 2008;9:75-90.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Ngam WH, Jung KC, Ferius M. Combination between ginseng and gingko regimen: Synergistic effect demonstrated by ontology study. Adv Trop Med Public Health Int 2015;5:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ngam WH, Jung KC, Ferius M. Synergistic neuroprotective effect from combining ginseng and lingzhi. Diagn Ther Study 2014;3:31-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Wiwanitkit V. Interaction between BRCA1 and human papilloma virus E7: An ontology study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2006;274:146-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wiwanitkit V. Functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX in gene therapy for hemophilia B. Hum Gene Ther 2007;18:89-92.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Wiwanitkit V. Interaction between leptin and leptin receptor in gastric carcinoma: Gene ontology analysis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2007;99:201-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Wiwanitkit V. I/D genetic polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme: Pathogenesis evaluation for erectile dysfunction by gene ontology. Fertil Steril 2008;89:1095-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Wiwanitkit V. Synergistic interaction between semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in diabetes: Functional analysis by gene ontology. J Diabetes Complications 2008;22:413-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Wiwanitkit V. Effect of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on osteopontin: Molecular function and biological process. Pediatr Int 2008;50:213-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Khan S, Situ G, Decker K, Schmidt CJ. GoFigure: Automated gene ontology annotation. Bioinformatics 2003;19:2484-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Chu SF, Zhang JT. New achievements in ginseng research and its future prospects. Chin J Integr Med 2009;15:403-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Leung KW, Wong AS. Pharmacology of ginsenosides: A literature review. Chin Med 2010;5:20.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Visek WJ. An update of concepts of essential amino acids. Annu Rev Nutr 1984;4:137-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Morgante G, Scolaro V, Tosti C, Di Sabatino A, Piomboni P, De Leo V. Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia. Minerva Urol Nefrol 2010;62:213-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Yang SY, Kim HK, Lefeber AW, Erkelens C, Angelova N, Choi YH, et al. Application of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quality control of ginseng commercial products. Planta Med 2006;72:364-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Rinwa P, Kumar A. Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2014;387:129-41.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Cai T, Wagenlehner FM, Mazzoli S, Meacci F, Mondaini N, Nesi G, et al. Semen quality in patients with Chlamydiatrachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent. J Androl 2012;33:615-23.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Polan ML, Hochberg RB, Trant AS, Wuh HC. Estrogen bioassay of ginseng extract and ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2004;13:427-30.  Back to cited text no. 22
    



 
 
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