Year : 2017  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-20

Bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Intensive Care Units of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Idris Abdullahi Nasir
Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2276-7096.207587

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Background: Nosocomial infections are among leading causes of morbidity and mortality and are associated with increased antibiotic resistance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). This prospective study was conducted between March and October 2014 in the ICUs of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital to assess the rate, types, and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of airborne and surface-borne bacterial contamination before and after fumigation. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples were collected and investigated from fomites by surface swabbing and open plate air exposure in the ICUs before and after fumigation using standard microbiological methods. Results: Out of the sixty samples investigated, 38 (63.3%) yielded positive bacterial growth. Twenty-six (68%) were before fumigation of the ICU and 31.5% (n = 12) from postfumigation culture. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci spp.(CoNS) accounted for 39.4% (n = 15) of the positive cultures, Bacillus spp. 15% (n = 9), Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.2% (n = 5), Escherichia coli 10.5% (n = 4), Klebsiella oxytoca 7.9% (n = 3), and Streptococcus pyogenes 5.3% (n = 2). The antibiotic susceptibility test results of the isolates revealed that CoNS were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin-cloxacillin, and cefuroxime. K. pneumoniae was also resistance to chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, and penicillins, whereas E. coli showed resistance to fluoroquinolones, particularly pefloxacin and ofloxacin. Conversely, Bacillus spp., K. oxytoca, and S. pyogenes were susceptibility to all test antibiotics. Conclusion: The high level of bacterial contamination of equipment and inanimate objects in the ICUs and the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria calls for prompt and a holistic infection control interventions.

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