|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 111-116
Job satisfaction among healthcare workers at a district hospital in Plateau State, Nigeria
Mark D Gyang1, Musa Dankyau2, Sanusi Gidado1, Bwatyum A Gyang1, Aboi J K Madaki1
1 Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria
2 Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jul-2019|
Dr. Mark D Gyang
FWACP – Family Medicine, Lecturer University of Jos, and Consultant Family Physician, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Job satisfaction has been identified as a key factor determining patient satisfaction in health care organizations. This study was undertaken to assess the job satisfaction index among staff in the facility, and to identify factors influencing job satisfaction as a means of improving services in the hospital. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey of health care workers conducted using the Linda Powells (Mountains State Group Inc) self-administered questionnaire. This is a 50-item questionnaire assessing eight thematic areas; 1. Overall satisfaction, 2. Planning, 3. General Attitudes, 4. Performance issues, 5. Management issues, 6. Supervisory issues, 7. Training and salary issues, 8. Benefits. Results: Overall, 64.8% of respondents were satisfied with their jobs. The thematic area that had the highest job satisfaction score was general attitudes; while the lowest was benefits 37.7%. Conclusion: The overall job satisfaction was found to be 64.8%. The thematic area that scored highest for level of satisfaction was general attitudes followed by performance issues, supervisory issues and planning. Staff were not satisfied with management issues, training and salary issues and benefits.
Keywords: Healthcare workers, hospital, job satisfaction
|How to cite this article:|
Gyang MD, Dankyau M, Gidado S, Gyang BA, Madaki AJ. Job satisfaction among healthcare workers at a district hospital in Plateau State, Nigeria. J Med Trop 2018;20:111-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Gyang MD, Dankyau M, Gidado S, Gyang BA, Madaki AJ. Job satisfaction among healthcare workers at a district hospital in Plateau State, Nigeria. J Med Trop [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jul 11];20:111-6. Available from: http://www.jmedtropics.org/text.asp?2018/20/2/111/262748
| Introduction|| |
Job satisfaction can be defined by how employees feel about their jobs and the different aspects of their jobs. It could also be defined as the gratification, happiness, compensation, fulfilment, joy, excitement, and self-actualization that individuals have from their jobs. Job satisfaction is a complex function of a number of variables. A person may be satisfied with one or more aspects of his or her job but at the same time may be unhappy with some aspects relating to it. There are three main groups of factors, namely, individual, group, and organizational, that contribute to job satisfaction.
Individual factors mainly refer to personality, status and seniority, general life satisfaction, and the extent to which the job characteristics are congruent with personal characteristics. Group factors have to do with the size of the group and the perceived quality of supervision by supervisors. Organizational factors refer to pay and benefits, promotions, reward system, the work itself, organizational policies and procedures, the relationship with coworkers, and working conditions.
There is a connection between employee job satisfaction and patient satisfaction as healthcare workers who are dissatisfied with their job may have a poor attitude toward their job, be less productive, leave the job, or even have a negative effect on other staff. Satisfied employees, on the other hand, tend to be more productive, creative, and committed to their employer.,
This survey was conducted to evaluate job satisfaction and identify areas influencing job satisfaction among healthcare workers at a faith-based district hospital in Plateau State.
| Methods|| |
The study, a cross-sectional survey design, using stratified sampling technique was employed to collect job satisfaction data from hospital staff over a few days so as not to disrupt services in the facility. Vom Christian Hospital, situated in Jos South local government area of Plateau State, is a faith-based hospital that provides secondary healthcare services. It is the only “general” hospital in the local government and offers healthcare services to the surrounding communities. Using a stratified random sampling technique, hospital staff were recruited for the study. The study instrument was the Linda Powells (Mountains State Group Inc.) self-administered questionnaire. This instrument was chosen to assess employee satisfaction in this study for the following reasons. First, the tool is based on the outcome of a systematic review done to identify elements of a reliable and valid instrument for measuring job satisfaction. Second, unlike several other tools, this tool can be used for all hospital staff. The questionnaire had 50-items that assessed eight thematic areas, viz., overall satisfaction, planning, general attitudes, performance issues, management issues, supervisory issues, training and salary issues, and benefits.
The questionnaire employed a five-point Likert scale with responses ranging from agree (5 points), somewhat agree (4 points), neutral (3 points), and somewhat disagree (2 points) to disagree (1 point). The total score received = (total number of responses of 5 × 5) + (total number of responses of 4 × 4) + (total number of responses of 3 × 3) + (total number of responses of 2 × 2) + (total number of responses of 1 × 1). The maximum total score was calculated by summing the total number of questions with answers against each response × 5. Job satisfaction index was calculated by the formula: (total score received/maximum total score) × 100.
Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Jos University Teaching Hospital Ethical Clearance Committee and permission sought to conduct the study from the management of Vom Christian Hospital. Participants’ data was anonymized and participation was voluntary.
A database was created in MS Excel and analyzed in MS Excel (Microsoft - Redmond, Washington, USA) and Epi info version 3.5.3 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA). This was used to determine the frequencies and percentages of study variables and job satisfaction responses. Using formulas inserted to the excel sheet, the job satisfaction index (JSI) was also calculated. Results obtained were represented using tables.
| Results|| |
Description of study population
The study had 109 persons (69.9%) enrolled out of the 156 hospital workers. More than 60% of workers [68 (62.4%)] were less than 45 years and 57 (52.3%) were male. Over 80% of the study population were married and slightly over a third [39 (35.8%)] had no child less than 18 years. About two-thirds [76 (69.7%)] had worked in the hospital for less than 10 years, about half [55 (50.5%)] had a monthly salary of less than N20,000, and about 50% [52 (47.7%)] planned to continue their employment until retirement. See study characteristics as shown in [Table 1].
Job satisfaction index of study population
The mean JSI for the study population was 45.9% [Table 2]. Staff who were older than 44 years had a lower JSI compared to those who were younger than 44 years. Females had a higher JSI (47.0%) compared with males (44.9%), and those who had worked in the hospital for 10 or more years were slightly more satisfied (46.0%) than those who had worked for less than 10 years (45.8%). Health service providers had a JSI of 52.5% whereas health maintenance support staff had a JSI of 43.0%. Staff with take home pay of more than N20,000 had a JSI of 49.9% as opposed to those with a take home of less than N20,000 with a JSI of 41.6%. Study variables that did not have a JSI above the mean JSI were of age greater than 44 years, being male, having a permanent appointment, being a health maintenance support staff, having worked for less than 10 years, being married, and a gross monthly salary less than N20,000. The thematic area that had the highest JSI was benefits (63.3%) whereas the lowest was general attitudes (37.7%). See [Table 1] and [Table 3] for details.
| Discussion|| |
The results of this study are intended to assist decision makers in identifying key workplace issues, as perceived by the employees, to develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for staff within the organization.
The finding of an overall job satisfaction of 64.8% in our study is similar to studies done in Ekiti State, Nigeria (67.1%), north-eastern Nigeria (68.2%), and, Vientiane (65.0%). This may be because of the common issues of perception to salaries, staff welfare, and the nonavailability of working-related tools they faced. Our study showed that the highest level of job satisfaction was general attitudes implying that respondents felt that they were proud to work in the hospital, liked their work, were given authority, had good working conditions, and felt valued. The thematic area that had the lowest level of job satisfaction was benefits and this relates to vacation, sick leave, and health and retirement benefits. Performance, supervisory, and planning thematic areas were above the mean satisfactory score whereas management, training, and salary thematic areas were below the mean satisfactory score.
The provision of modern equipment for work and increment/prompt payment of salary were the most prominent factors that the respondents perceived as capable of increasing their job satisfaction in the study done in Ekiti State whereas the least reported factor was recommendation when one does a good job. Among healthcare workers in north-eastern Nigeria, the presence of conflict at work, freedom of expression, managerial support for staff welfare, managerial support for staff career development, availability of tools and consumables, and progress toward personal goals had a statistically significant relationship to job satisfaction. Workers at Vientiane were generally satisfied with their job except for salary. The highest satisfaction reported was for freedom to choose the method of working, followed by the amount of variety on the job, amount of responsibility, and relationships with coworkers.
Compared to our study, the higher job satisfaction scores were reported among nurses in Calabar (82.4%), oral healthcare workers (70.1%), tertiary healthcare workers in Zaria (71.6%), community healthcare workers in Ghana (75.6%), healthcare workers in India (70.0%), and hospital workers in Nepal (76.0%) and Finland (74.8%). The nurses were least satisfied with their salaries but most satisfied with the work itself and supervision. Although oral healthcare workers in the southern part of Nigeria were satisfied with their career, about half would like one of their children to take up their profession and about a third agreed that they had the necessary facilities and equipment to perform their work successfully. Less than half felt that their work area is comfortable enough to cater for their personal and family needs. In the Zaria study, service, professionalism, income, competence/training, work-related stress, management, and orientation were statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction. Community health workers in Ghana were highly satisfied with existing interpersonal relationship, supervision, and recognition whereas pay and benefits and working conditions received low satisfaction ratings. Healthcare workers in India were satisfied with their job and also felt that their services were appreciated and acknowledged by the community, however, they were not satisfied with their pay scale. Low monetary compensation, overburden of work due to vacancies, poorly defined job roles, poor nonmonetary rewards for achievements, and poor participation in microplanning and decision making were mentioned as major stressors by most of the participants. At the Tilganga Eye Centre at Nepal, healthcare professionals were satisfied with their current jobs in overall job satisfaction. Responsibility, opportunity to develop, staff relations, and patient care were significantly influencing factors for job satisfaction. Healthcare professionals are satisfied not only with financial benefits but also satisfaction drawn from taking care of patients relations. At Finnish hospital, they rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent; however, the areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making.
Although these studies that had a higher job satisfaction score were higher than ours, some staff in these studies were not happy with the pay and benefits and availability of facilities. The extent of this dissatisfaction may be less and they were happy with the existing interpersonal relationship, their work, supervision, and recognition and this may account for higher levels of job satisfaction.
Our study had a higher job satisfaction level than that conducted among radiographers in the south-eastern part of Nigeria (56.3%), health workers in public hospital of Ethiopia (34.9%), and a university-specialized hospital of Ethiopia (41.4%). About 60% of radiographers admitted that given a choice they would have preferred another job. They were mostly dissatisfied with the environmental working conditions and the salary but, however, were satisfied with the job security. Majority also admitted that their level of job satisfaction affected their daily attendance to work and their performance at work. The major reason for dissatisfaction among health workers in Ethiopia was poor payment scheme, lack of training opportunity, lack of incentives, bureaucratic management style, poor performance evaluation system, and poor working conditions. Among healthcare workers at the University Hospital, Ethiopia, the major reasons reported for their dissatisfaction were lack of motivation, inadequate salary, insufficient training opportunities, and inadequate number of human resources but, however, obtained satisfaction in helping others and from professional gratification. Participants in our study had high levels of satisfaction in general attitudes, performance issues, supervisory issues, and planning and this may explain the higher level of job satisfaction.
| Limitations of the study|| |
The completion of the questionnaire is subject to the understanding, bias, and prejudices of respondents. Questionnaires were not filled by hospital staff at the same day. This could also contribute to respondent bias.
| Conclusion|| |
The overall job satisfaction was found to be 64.8% and JSI to be 45.9%. The thematic area that scored highest for level of satisfaction was general attitudes followed by performance issues, supervisory issues, and planning. Staff were not satisfied with management issues, training and salary issues, and benefits. The study brings to the fore an overall high job satisfaction score. However, the JSI was below average. Analysis of the thematic area revealed low scores for staff satisfaction with management issues, training and salary issues, and benefits. The management of the hospital would need to do a qualitative interview to determine what the issues are in these thematic areas and address them.
The authors are grateful to the staff of Vom Christian Hospital for their participation and the management for the support toward the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Mahmood A, Nudrat S, Asdaque MM, Nawaz A, Haider N. Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers: a comparative analysis of gender, urban and rural schools. Asian Social Sci 2011;7:203-7.
Gesinde AM, Adejumo GO. Job satisfaction status of primary school teachers in Ota, Nigeria. Euro J Edu Stu 2012;4:11-8.
Roopalekha J, Melisha RD, Latha KS. Determinants of job satisfaction among healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital. J Health Allied Sci 2011;10:1-3.
Mohase N, Khumalo J. Job satisfaction in the healthcare services in South Africa: Case of MPH. Med J Social Sc 2014;5:94-102.
White AW. Job satisfaction and professional development of health information, administrative faculty. J Allied Health 2000;29:129-37.
Al-Aameri AS. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment for nurses. Saudi Med J 2000;21:231-5.
Saane NV, Sluiter JK, Verbeek HAM, Frings-Dresen MHW. Reliability and validity of instruments measuring job satisfaction − a systemic review. Occup Med 2003;53:191-200.
Yafe SA. Assessing job satisfaction levels of employees in a tertiary care hospital − a tool for talent retention. Inter J Multidis Res 2011;1:494-507.
Ayamolowo SJ, Irinoye O, Oladoyin MA. Job satisfaction and work environment of primary health care nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria: an exploratory study. Int J Caring Sci 2013;6:531-42.
Chirdan OO, Akosu JT, Ejembi CL, Bassi AP, Zoakah AI. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state-owned facilities in north-eastern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2009;8:243-9.
] [Full text]
Khamlub S, Rashid HO, Sarker MAB, Hirosawa T, Outavong P, Sakamoto J. Job satisfaction of health-care workers at health centers in Vientiane capital and Bolikhamsai province, LAO PDR. Nagoya J Sci 2013;75:233-41.
Samson-Akpan PE, EdetOlaide B, Ojong IN, Asuquo EF. Job satisfaction among nurses in public hospitals in Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria. Am J Nur Sci 2015;4:231-7.
Ezeja EB, Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Ehigiator O, Oboro HO. Assessment of job satisfaction and working conditions of Nigerian oral health workers. Inter J Biomed Health Sci 2010;6:143-50.
Butawa NN, Sule AG, Omole VN, Yere JK, Dogo M, Gyuro J. Assessment of job satisfaction among health workers in a tertiary hospital in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Savannah J Med Res Pract 2013;2:54-62.
Bempah BSO. Determinants of job satisfaction among community health workers in the Volta region of Ghana. Public Policy Adm Res 2013;3:1-11.
Solanki R. Job satisfaction among health care workers in Block Shahapur, district Thane: an explorative study. J Health Sci 2017;5:259.
Chaulagain N, Khadka DK. Factors influencing job satisfaction among healthcare professionals at Tilganga eye centre, Kathmandu, Nepal. Int J Sci Tech Res 2012;1:32-6.
Kvist T, Mantynen R, Vehvilainen-Julkunen K. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups? BMC Health Serv Res 2013;13:376-82.
Okaro OA, Eze CU, Ohagwu CC. Survey of job satisfaction among Nigerian radiographers in south-eastern Nigeria. Euro J Sci Res 2010;39:448-56.
Mengistu MM, Bali AG. Factors associated to job satisfaction among healthcare workers at public hospitals of west Shoa zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Sci J Pub Health 2015;3:161-7.
Yami A, Hamza L, Hassen A, Jira C, Sudhakar M. Job satisfaction and its determinants among health workers in Jimma university specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian J Health Sci 2011;21:19-27.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]