ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 42-50

Craniofacial morphology of HIV infected adolescents on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): An original research


Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jomt.jomt_6_19

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Background: Numerous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) while simultaneously leading to a plethora of associated adverse effects including changes in the craniofacial growth and development. The present study was planned to analyze the craniofacial morphology in adolescents by evaluating the skeletal cephalometric profile of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in this age group and comparing them with the HIV-negative controls. Methods: The present study was a planned case–control study that included 25 HIV-positive adolescent patients aged between 10 and 19 years (study group) who were compared with 25 age and sex-matched HIV-negative adolescent controls (control group). All the patients had been HIV-infected via vertical transmission with positive serology confirmed in two different tests and had been on HAART since they were born. Results: In the 10 to 12-year age group, positions of maxilla and mandible in the study group were found to be retruded in relation to the skull base when compared with the control group whereas in the 13 to 15 and 16 to 18-year age groups, maxilla was retruded slightly while the mandible was found to be protruded in the study group in relation to the skull base. Conclusion: Although the differences in majority of the measurements made were not found to be significant enough, the study highlighted the significance of further studies to be conducted in this regard, especially, the longitudinal study designs wherein the said variables can be studied on a follow-up basis to have an idea of the exact changes observed and their pattern in the included groups.


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