|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 18-21
Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect?
Beuy Joob1, Viroj Wiwanitkit2
1 Sanitation, Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Biological Science, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||1-Mar-2016|
Medical Academic Center, Bangkok
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many confi rmed clinical advantages. Ginseng formulation in combination with other chemicals is very interesting. The combination between ginseng and amino acid such as arginine is interesting. There are extremely limited reports on such ginseng-amino acid combination.
Method: The present ontology study is to assess the ginseng-arginine combination.
Results: In this study, a standard ontology study was used for assessing the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine.
Conclusion: Based on this study, there is no new addition effect but some concurrent effects between ginseng and arginine can be identified.
Keywords: Arginine, combination, ginseng, ontology
|How to cite this article:|
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect?. J Med Trop 2016;18:18-21
| Introduction|| |
Ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many confirmed clinical advantages. Ginseng formulation in combination with other chemicals is very interesting. In general, the combination might be the combining ginseng with other Chinese herbs, other non-Chinese herbs as well as modern nutraceuticals. There are some available nutraceutical products that pose the combining formulation between ginseng and amino acid, especially for arginine. The combination between ginseng and amino acid such as arginine is interesting. The effect of such combination is still controversial and needs systematic evaluation. To study the effect due to a combination of two or more compositions seem hard in the past. However, due to the advanced bioinformatics techniques in the present day, the process can be simplified.
An important technique to assess the effect due to a combination of compositions is ontology. Briefly, ontology is a systematic study of the biological process and function of any substance.,,, With the use of computational technology and data mining technology, the ontology technique can be useful for categorizing and determining the relating function of any composition, which is primarily assigned as a basic ontology term.,,, Focusing on a basic ontology term, the computational manipulation can be used for searching for its relating biological processes and functions. Moreover, clarification of the situations of combination between two compositions or among many compositions is possible. The previous publications by Ngam et al. are the good examples., Indeed, the gene ontology approach has also been used in many previous referencing papers.,,,,, For example, the similar ontology technique was used for assessment of the interaction between Breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) and human papillomavirus E7. This study on the interaction between BRCA1 and human papillomavirus E7 gives an insight into the pathogenesis of gynecological malignancies. Another study was on using the ontology technique to clarify the outcome from combination between semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme. This work reveals the synergistic effect due to the combination, and this can further explain the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. It can be said that the used ontology can be helpful in clarification and prediction of the biological process which is the outcome from the interaction or combination between two compositions.
Combination between classical Chinese herb and other useful substances can be seen in the present day. Some combinations are proved for usefulness., However, an interesting combination is the combined ginseng and arginine which has never been approved for the advantage. The present ontology study is to specifically assess the ginseng-arginine combination. In this study, a standard ontology study was used for assessing the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. The standard technique of ontology is used in this work, and the gotten result can be the solution to the existing problem on the effect of combination between ginseng and arginine.
| Materials and Methods|| |
In this study, standard ontology methods were used for assessment of the combined ginseng and arginine formulation. The technique of ontology is the same as described in the previous reports.,,,,, Briefly, prediction of molecular function and biological process is basically done by standard ontology prediction tool, GoFigure, an automated Gene Ontology annotation tool. The tool is a computational-based tool that uses BLAST technique, an algorithm for comparing primary biological sequence information, and for identification of homology in ontology sequencing in ontology annotated databases. The mentioned ontology annotated databases include several international databases such as SwissProt, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Mouse Genome Informatics, and Wormbase. The technique has been approved for its effectiveness in clarification of biological processes that emerged from the combination between molecules.,,,,,
Similar studies using the present techniques have been documented ,,,,, and like this study specifically focuses on the outcome resulting from the combination between ginseng and arginine. The basic ontology terms in this study are “ginseng” and “arginine.” Focusing on the principle of ontology, the basic biological processes specifically posed by ginseng and arginine are determined from gene ontology database then further identification on any biological processes as outcomes of combination is done. Step by step, basic biological processes of each studied composition are identified by ontology searching of the database. Next, the finding of biological processes of combined both composition is identified by the prediction tool GoFigure. The gotten results are sought for (a) any new biological process and (b) any concomitant process. The details and protocols of the methodology can be seen in the referencing publication on gene ontology studies.,,,,,
| Results|| |
According to the study, several biological processes of ginseng and arginine can be seen. However, there is no new additional process as an outcome of a combination of arginine and ginseng [Table 1]. Nevertheless, there are some concomitant processes between ginseng and arginine including (a) nitric oxide releasing and (b) spermatotropic actions.
|Table 1: Biological processes of ginseng, arginine, and combined ginseng-arginine from ontology studytable|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Ginseng is accepted as a classical beneficial Chinese herb that has been used for thousand years. Many advantages of ginseng have been mentioned in both classical Chinese traditional medicine and modern Western medicine. There are many formulations and regimens containing ginseng available as drug and nutraceuticals in the present day. The combination is very interesting and the approval its clinical usefulness is still necessary. In this short report, the author focused the investigation on the combination between ginseng and arginine. As already mentioned, ginseng is a well-known Chinese herb with many active ingredients, especially for ginsenoside that can be useful for stimulation of immune system., Focusing on arginine, it is an important amino acid that is required for regulation of the human body. It is accepted as an essential amino acid for human beings. This means that arginine cannot be synthesized by the human body, therefore needed by intake of food. The combination of arginine and ginseng are good for health; hence, it is no doubt that there are several attempts to combine and formulate the combination between the two compositions. The good example is the study by Morgante et al. on preparing arginine and ginseng combination for treatment of male with spermatogenesis problem.
In this work, the author used standard ontology approach for clarifying the resulted effect as an outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. According to the present assessment, ontology approach can identify now a new additional biological process that is newly generated as a result of combining. However, there are two important common processes that both ginseng and arginine pose. The two processes are on nitric oxide biological reaction and sperm stimulation. This means the combination of ginseng and arginine increased the magnitude of expression of those processes. In fact, some recent reports also show that separate use of ginseng formula and arginine formula can provide good synchronization. Indeed, after passing some formulation process, ginseng can give arginine as an important metabolite; hence, it is no doubt that ginseng and arginine share some common biological processes. This can be observable not only in classical Chinese ginseng but also American ginseng. Rinwa and Kumar reported the observation on “modulation of nitrergic signaling” in ginseng that was accompanied by arginine in the bio-metabolic process.
Focusing on the effect on sperm, it is interesting to note that both ginseng and arginine enhance spermatogenesis based on the present work, the sperm stimulation can be increased as a biological process corresponding to the combination between ginseng and arginine. In fact, there are some reports to support that finding. For example, Morgante et al. found that the use of two separate formula, arginine and ginseng, could solve the problem of asthenospermia. This report can support the present finding that the combination ginseng and arginine increase the magnitude of expression of spermatotropic actions. Cai et al. also reported another similar study on a nutritional supplementation formula that contains both ginseng and arginine. In this work, the therapeutic trial on males with problem of sperm quality due to Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was done and it was found that the patients who got additional nutritional supplementation formula that contained both ginseng and arginine to standard antibiotic therapy presented a significantly improved semen quality compared to those patients who got only standard antibiotic therapy. Of interest, the effect of the combination is specific to male, andrologic beneficial on spermatogenesis. The similar effect is not observed in female or there is no gynecologic beneficial on oogenesis. According to a recent study by Polan et al., a test on a nutritional supplementation formula that contains both ginseng and arginine showed the null effect on the estrogenic biological process.
| Conclusion|| |
In this report, the author used a standard ontology study for assessing the outcome of combination between ginseng and arginine. According to this study, there is no new additional effect but some concurrent effects between ginseng and arginine can be identified. This work is from the authors' laboratory in the series of testing combination between ginseng and other molecules. The other works in the series (such as the interaction between ginseng and lingzhi, ginseng and gingko, etc.) will be further published.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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