Isolation and polymerase chain reaction detection of virulence invA gene in Salmonella spp. from poultry farms in Jos, Nigeria
Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1, Samson Ejiji Isa2, Onyemocho Audu3, Idowu O Fagbamila4, Jacob Chire Iornenge1, Ifeanyi Stella Smith5
1 Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
3 Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue, Nigeria
4 Bacterial Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
5 Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi
Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Salmonella serovars are one of the most common food-borne pathogens, and poultry consumption is responsible for the majority of routes of infection worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data regarding the prevalence of virulence determinant genes in Salmonella serovars in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella spp. in selected poultry farms in Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of eighty samples were conveniently collected from 18 commercial poultry. The samples were from poultry droppings, egg shells, workers' hands, and feeds. The samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella by standard microbiological techniques. The isolates were phenotypically confirmed using biochemical characterization and virulence gene determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The overall isolation percentage of Salmonella species was 28.75% (23/80). DNA extraction was carried out on the isolated 23 Salmonella isolates and 11 successfully quantified. Of the 11 isolates, ten (91.0%) successfully amplified using the invA gene-specific primers by PCR method. The result indicates the presence of Salmonella in poultry farms, and this posed a major concern for public health.
Conclusion: The result showed that the use of PCR amplification of virulence genes in suspected Salmonella spp. from poultry farms proved to be efficient and could serve as an alternative rapid tool for the detection of Salmonella spp. Further large studies with the use of more virulence genes are needed to understand the Salmonella epidemiology in poultry farms that serves as a major protein source of the nation.