Year : 2020  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-99

Pattern of tracheostomy-related complications and its determinants in Kano: a ten-year single institution experience

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdulrazak Ajiya
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomt.jomt_43_19

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Background: Tracheostomy is the surgical creation of an opening into the trachea. Reported complication rates of tracheostomy are varied and depends on the study design, study population, patients’ follow-up and the definition of the different complications. We reviewed the pattern of tracheostomy-related complications and its determinants. Methods: This study was a 10-year retrospective review of patients who had tracheostomy in the study area between January 2008 to December 2017. Case files of the patients were retrieved, reviewed, and information extracted. Results: Of the 149 patients, the male: female ratio was 3.8:1 with age range of 6 months to 86 years. The peak age group was 1−10 years. Foreign body aspiration and head and neck neoplasia were the two most common admitting diagnoses; 56 (37.6%) and 55 (36.8%) respectively. The most common indication was upper airway obstruction (129, 86.6%). Emergency tracheostomy was most commonly done (126, 84.6%) and majority of the tracheostomies were done under general anaesthesia (101, 67.8%). Trainee ENT surgeons performed the most tracheostomies (108, 72.5%). Surgical decanulation was done for 5 (3.4%) of the patients. The complication and mortality rates were 42.3% and 2.6% respectively. The most common period of complication was early postoperative period (46, 73.0%), and the most common complications were tube blockage and tube displacement (26, 41.3% and 11, 17.5%) respectively. The analyzed variables were not statistically significant determinants of tracheostomy-related complications among the patients. Conclusion: Tracheostomy-related complications are common, usually in the early postoperative period and usually involve blockage or displacement of the tube.

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